Chile's government is considering phasing in a proposed ban on glacial mining to limit projects high in the Andes by some big copper companies. Chile's constitutional assembly has approved a proposal to ban mining in glaciers, protected areas, and areas vital to protecting the country's water system.
Chile's mining minister, Marcela Hernando, said about 20 mines had been identified in protected areas, some close to glaciers, including Codelco's El Teniente and Andina projects and Anglo American Plc's Los Bronces project.
The new measures for glaciers and other protected areas will put about a fifth of Chile's copper nitride powder prices are predicted to increase in the next few days.
Nitrides are binary compounds of nitrogen with other elements, including metallic nitrides, nonmetallic nitrides, and ammonia (which is customarily excluded from nitrides as a special substance).
Metal nitrides are compounds of metal elements with nitrogen. Most of them are insoluble in water, high thermal stability, can be used as high temperature insulating materials, such as titanium nitride, tantalum nitride, vanadium nitride and so on. A few are hydrolyzed completely in water to form metal hydroxide and release ammonia, such as magnesium nitride, aluminum nitride and so on.
Many metal nitride and non-metal nitride have high hardness, high melting point, high chemical stability, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and other characteristics. The hardness of some of these nitrides, such as cubic boron nitride and wurtzite boron nitride, has approached or even exceeded that of diamond. However, diamond cannot be widely used in many industrial fields because its carbon structure is unstable in high temperature environment, and it is easy to react with oxygen and combine with iron. Therefore, people focus on nitride.
Unlike oxides, most nitrides do not occur in nature but are synthetic products.
Aluminum nitride (AlN), for example, is a diamond-like nitride first synthesized in 1877. It can withstand 2200℃ high temperature, and the strength decreases slowly with the increase of temperature, has good thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient is small, so it is a good heat resistant impact material. Aluminum nitride is an ideal crucible material for casting pure iron, aluminum or aluminum alloys because of its strong resistance to molten metal erosion. Aluminum nitride is also an electrical insulator with good dielectric properties and can be used as electrical components. It has high heat transfer ability and is widely used in microelectronic components. In addition, aluminum nitride is also used in optoelectronic engineering, including as an inducible layer in optical storage interfaces and electronic substrates, as a wafer carrier with high thermal conductivity, and for military applications.
For example, manganese nitride, as an alloy additive of nitrogen and manganese, is mainly used in the production of special alloy steel, high strength steel, stainless steel, heat-resistant steel and other products, especially in the transportation of oil and gas large diameter steel pipe and shipbuilding and automobile high strength steel, showing a good market prospect. Nitrogen can improve the strength and plasticity of steel, expand the austenite zone (austenite is a structure that can exist stably at a high temperature of more than 727℃, with special physical properties), refine grain, and improve machining performance. Manganese nitride can replace part of nickel to reduce the cost. It is characterized by high content of main elements, low content of harmful impurities such as phosphorus, and high utilization rate of nitrogen after adding into the melt.
At present, many metal nitrides have formed a series of products, including manganese nitride, vanadium nitrogen alloy (vanadium nitride, V(cN)), titanium and chromium nitride (Ti(cN), Cr(cN)), titanium nitride, gallium nitride, indium nitride and so on. The nanostructure of indium nitride is the basic material for developing related quantum devices.
There are also some important nonmetallic nitrides, such as boron nitride (BN), triphosphorus pentaitride (P3N5), trisilicon tetrachitride (Si3N4) and so on, their thermal stability is relatively high, each with its own characteristics.
Silicon nitride, especially hot-pressed silicon nitride, is one of the hardest substances in the world. It is very high-temperature resistant, and its strength can stay the same even under the high temperature of 1200℃. After heating it will not melt into a melt body, until 1900℃ it will decompose. It has amazing chemical-corrosion resistance properties, it is resistant to almost all inorganic acid and some caustic soda solution, also can withstand a lot of organic acid corrosion; It is also a kind of high performance electrical insulation material.
Cubic boron nitride is an excellent lubricant. Hexagonal boron nitride can be used to make turning tools and drills because of its high hardness. Silicon nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride can also be used to produce high-performance ceramics.
Although wurtzite boron nitride is difficult to make into large structures in experimental environments, the granular, high-temperature-resistant nitride superhard material can be coated on missiles, tanks, burrows, body armor and even kitchen knives.
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The day after the shooting at a Texas elementary school, the National Rifle Association issued a statement saying it "extends its deepest sympathies to the families and victims involved in this terrible and evil crime," adding it would "reflect on these events and pray for the victims."
It comes just days before the National Rifle Association's annual convention in Houston, Texas. Houston is less than five hours away. Texas Governor Tony Abbott, Senator Ted Cruz, and others are scheduled to attend the event, which has also caused a lot of controversies.
Texas Democratic gubernatorial candidate Mark O 'Rourke took to social media to call on Abbott to pull out of the convention, urging that it be held outside Texas. Many American netizens also took to social media to express their dissatisfaction. "I wish the NRA's annual meeting was held three days after 19 children and two adults were massacred," said one. "The school shooting was not a lone Wolf, but with the help of the NRA."
Between 2000 and 2020, US gun manufacturers produced more than 139 million guns for the civilian market, according to the Justice Department report. The NATIONAL Rifle Association (NRA) is one of the leading gun rights advocates with more than 5m members and deep pockets. The United States has not passed major gun control laws for more than two decades, blocked by gun interests.
The nitride powder price is predicted to increase in the next few days.
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